by Aaron Barkoff
Momenta Pharms. v. Amphastar Pharms., No. 2012-1062 (Fed. Cir.)
Last year, in Classen v. Biogen IDEC, a three-judge panel of the Federal Circuit held that the safe harbor of Section 271(e)(1) "does not apply to information that may be routinely reported to the FDA, long after marketing approval has been obtained." The majority opinion was written by Judge Newman, with Chief Judge Rader concurring and providing additional views, and Judge Moore dissenting. A petition for certiorari in the case is currently pending at the Supreme Court, and the Court recently asked the Solicitor General's office to weigh in with its views.
Last Friday, in Momenta v. Amphastar, a case between two manufacturers of generic Lovenox (enoxaparin), a slightly different three-judge panel of the Federal Circuit held that the safe harbor does apply to certain post-approval activities. In the case, Judge Moore wrote the majority opinion, joined by Judge Dyk, and Chief Judge Rader wrote a blistering 29-page dissent. The decisions in the two cases do not seem entirely consistent with each other, which likely raises the odds that the Supreme Court will agree to hear the Classen case.
Momenta is the assignee of U.S. Patent No. 7,575,886, which generally relates "to methods for analyzing heterogeneous populations of sulfated polysaccharides, e.g. heparin [and] . . . LMWH [low molecular weight heparin–e.g., enoxaparin]." Two days after Amphastar received final FDA approval to market its generic enoxaparin (and more than a year after Momenta received its own approval), Momenta filed suit against Amphastar, accusing Amphastar of "manufacturing generic enoxaparin for commercial sale" and performing "in their process for manufacturing batches of enoxaparin" an analytical method that infringes the '886 patent. According to the majority opinion, Momenta also alleged that this infringing testing was necessary to "satisfy the FDA's requirements."
The district court granted Momenta a preliminary injunction, concluding that Amphastar's testing falls outside the scope of the safe harbor under Section 271(e)(1): "although the safe harbor provision permits otherwise infringing activity that is conducted to obtain regulatory approval of a product, it does not permit a generic manufacturer to continue in that otherwise infringing activity after obtaining approval." Amphastar appealed, contending that the district court adopted an overly restrictive view of the safe harbor.
The Federal Circuit majority opinion began by addressing Momenta's "contention that the information in question was not 'submitted' to the FDA, but rather was retained by the ANDA holder." Here, the majority concluded that "the fact that the FDA does not in most cases actually inspect [Amphastar's manufacturing test records] does not change the fact that they are for the development and submission of information under a Federal law." The majority cited the Supreme Court's Merck v. Integra decision for "holding that uses which are not ultimately included in a submission to the FDA are nonetheless exempted by the safe harbor."
The majority then turned to whether Amphastar's submissions are protected by the safe harbor. Here, the majority took pains to distinguish Classen:
At issue in Classen were [post-marketing] studies to evaluate the association between the timing of childhood vaccinations and the risk of developing certain immune-mediated disorders. The studies themselves were not mandated by the FDA, but any vaccine license holder was required to report to the FDA "adverse experience information," such as adverse side effects, it acquired as a result of vaccine studies. We found that the studies conducted by the vaccine license holder according to patented methods were not insulated by the safe harbor because the studies did not facilitate marketing a generic drug by "expediting development of information for regulatory approval." We, of course, are bound by the Classen decision unless it is overruled en banc or by the Supreme Court. Accordingly, the scope of the safe harbor provision does not extend to "information that may be routinely reported to the FDA, long after marketing approval has been obtained."
This case, however, fits well within Classen because the information submitted is necessary both to the continued approval of the ANDA and to the ability to market the generic drug. Here, the submissions are not "routine submissions" to the FDA, but instead are submissions that are required to maintain FDA approval. . . . Failure to comply with these requirements could result in suspension or revocation of Amphastar's ANDA approval to market the drug.
We also note that, unlike in Classen where the patented studies performed were not mandated by the FDA, the information here is not generated voluntarily by the manufacturer but is generated by FDA requirements the manufacturer is obligated under penalty of law to follow. Under such circumstances, the information can be said to have been gathered solely for submission to the FDA and not, as in Classen, primarily for non-FDA purposes. While Momenta urges us to adopt the pre-/post-approval distinction used by the district court, we cannot: Classen did not turn on this artificial distinction, and the plain language of the statute is not restricted to pre-approval activities.
Unlike Classen, where the allegedly infringing activity "may" have eventually led to an FDA submission, there is no dispute in this case that Amphastar's allegedly infringing activities are carried out to "satisfy the FDA's requirements."
In a strongly-worded dissent, Chief Judge Rader repeatedly refers to Amphastar as a "trespasser" and "infringer." He traces the legislative history of Section 271(e)(1)–which is curious given that the Supreme Court has twice minimized the legislative history and based its decisions instead on the plain (and broad) language of the statute. And he takes great exception to the majority opinion's basis for distinguishing Classen. Finally, he claims that the majority's "interpretation of 271(e)(1) would essentially render manufacturing method patents worthless." While this is an exaggeration, the Supreme Court might reply: "that is a problem for Congress to fix, if they so choose."
Where the scope of the 271(e)(1) safe harbor ends up matters a great deal, particularly as we approach the era of biosimilar patent litigation. Like enoxaparin, biologics are complex molecules and thus analytical-method patents figure to be in the patent portfolios protecting them. The sooner the courts can agree on the scope of the safe harbor, the better for everyone.