The $280 billion CHIPS and Science Act is designed to use federal grants and investments to encourage domestic production of advanced semiconductors and will also fund research into further advanced technologies, including further improved microchips; quantum computing; and artificial intelligence (AI). Although many advanced chips are still primarily designed in the US, almost all of them are currently manufactured abroad (primarily in Taiwan and Korea). And, China is rapidly developing its own capabilities for advanced chip manufacture. Legislators and the Biden Administration see this situation as a potential national security concern deserving of major market intervention. These most advanced semiconductors serve as core features of US military and other governmental systems, and the current situation has substantial security risks. Although the Department of Commerce is in charge of distributing the funds, the Department of Defense is also directly involved with the considerations. At this point, it appears that there are three primary companies set to vie for the bulk of the $50 billion in direct investment: Intel, Samsung, and Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC).
On the patent side, the basic setup will follow the usual US rule that inventions created using federal fund will belong to the creators (i.e., the chip companies), but the Government will seemingly have march-in rights. In high-security situations, some developments will also be classified and the patents kept secret, although that situation most often arises in the context of a DoD contract.